PENNSYLVANIA/MARYLAND

Shortly after May 1754 the brothers Peter Sr, wife Magdalena, their children Peter Jr and Johann Jacob along with Johann Peter Sr, wife Susanna, children Johannes, Anna Elizabeth, Clemens, and Johann Peter Jr immigrated to America together. One of their married sisters, Maria Catharina and husband Samuel Dellenbach, came as well. This would make up a party of twelve and Engle oral history suggested the Clemens Engels immigrated with "12 brothers and sisters" at the age of four. Oral history also suggests that Peter Engels Sr lost a wife and a son on the trip over. This could have been Magdalena Frey and son Johann Jacob as neither appear later in the PA/MD records. In addition, no record of Johann Peter Sr. six year old daughter, Anna Elizabeth, have been found in the United States either. Could she too have perished at sea? Two or three deaths out of twelve was actually a low mortality rate for Atlantic. Conditions aboard the ships were horrible and the passengers were not treated better than cattle. One year, 1738, was called the "Year of the Avenging Angel." There were severe epidemics in Holland and many of the passengers were deathly sick even before boarding. Over 50% of some ships passengers died that year.

One poigant account on the hardship of sailing to America and the possible fate of the poor souls upon arrival at Philadelphia, is this account of conditions in 1754 Philadelphia. It was amazing that young children like Clemens and Peter Jr could survive such a voyage. Peter Sr. and Johann Peter Sr. are likely to have had more financial resources than the average immigrant due to their status as skilled iron workers in France. This would allow them to acquire housing and transportation out of the pest hole of Philadelphia. In addition, the Vautrin and Frey families from Alsace had already some family members in Pennsylvania.

Cousin Henri was researching the Frey family and found Magdalena's brothers Andreas and Hans Jacob Frey (Free) on board the ship Halifax which arrived in Philadelphia on 22nd Oct 1754. The lists also include a Peter Engels! It must be assumed that Peter Engels Sr, wife Magdalena and sons Peter Jr and Johann Jacob had all been on board but Magdalena and Johann Jacob perished during or shortly after the trip.

In scanning the ship lists of 1754 as contained in the "Pennslyvania German Pioneers", it was found that the ship Barclay also out of Rotterdam, arrived at Philadelphia on the 14th September 1754 with 110 males 16 or older and "250 Foreigners from Alsace". List "A" of this ship contained a Samuel Dalabaack aged 38 and Hans Peter Inglis aged 43. (Johann Peter Sr was born 25 Apr 1711!) Translation of this ships list "B", "Oaths and Declarations", gave the names as Samuel (O) De la Bough and Hans (X) Inglis and finally List "C", "Health Exam by the Doctor" gave the names as Sammuel (O) Tallebaugh and H. Peter (+) Engels. The marks with their names means they were illiterate or to ill to sign their own names.

It is most certain these two were Johann Peter Engels Sr and brother-in-law Samuel Dellenbach late of Klingenthal. The (X) in their name generally meant they were to sick to sign or illiterate. This notation appears in the original hand written lists as well. The doctor added the comment, "..and found Six ill of Fevers which we think ought to be taken out of this ship..not..infectious..and without Risque to the Inhabitants". Not sure if this meant six of the 110 males or women and children.

Individuals who immigrated to America in 1754
Johann Peter Engels Sr.(43) Peter Engels Sr.(26) Maria Catherina (30)
Susanna Vautrin (36) Magdalena Frey (35) Samuel Dellenbach (38)
Johannes (7) Peter Jr (3)  
Anna Elisabeth (5) Johann Jacob (1)  
Clemens (5)    
Johann Peter Jr. (2)    

The two brothers apparently had to take separate ships out of Rotterdam but were reunited in Philadelphia by October 1754. Peter Sr appears in MD records in 1756 a year later where he served in the Militia for 34 days but there is only one reference in the PA/MD records from Sep 1754-1762 for Johann Peter Sr and family. His son Michael was baptized in Cordorus Creek in York County in the year 1760.

This period coincides with the devastation of the PA/MD countryside by French-Indian raids so it is most likely they were living where earlier immigrants had been established like Susanna Vautrin's family who had immigrated earlier. Her brother John Daniel who immigrated in 1739 was married and living in Germantown and near York until 1759 when he relocates to Graceham MD until his death in 1786.

Major General Edward Braddock, of the Coldstream Guards, was Supreme Commander of the British Forces in the American Colonies during the French and Indian War, 1754-1763, the colonial phase of the Seven Years War between England and France, fought world wide. In an attempt to deter the Indian raids and massacres into the frontier settlements in the middle colonies, he determined to take the French Fort Duquesne (Pittsburgh), at the forks of the Ohio River. In 1755, with an army of 1400 British Regulars and a militia of 700 provinicals under Lieutenant Colonel George Washington, he moved up the Annapolis Road to Frederick, Maryland. There he took the settlers road through Middletown Valley to Hagerstown, and on to the frontier Fort Frederick, on the Potomac River.

Under the guidance of the Colonial Scouts, following the path used by Colonel George Washington only the year before, he started for Fort Duquesne. The army had to cut their own road for the wagon's and cannon. They went west, through Cumberland, Maryland, (old Fort Cumberland). They passed the tiny Fort Necessity, where Colonel Washington had escaped with his troops after surrendering to the French, just the year before. From the Redstone Creek (Uniontown), the army headed due north until it crossed the Youghiogheny River. It then followed the Monongahela River toward the fort. At the town of Braddock, some 7 miles from the Point (the site of Old Fort Duquesne), there in a ravine, the British Army was ambushed by a combined French and Indian force, a slaughter ensued. The remnants of the army fled back along the route of its approach. General Braddock, having been mortally injured in the fight, died and was buried in the road, at Great Meadows, east of now Uniontown, Pennsylvania, about a mile from little Fort Necessity. His grave was covered and run over by the remaining wagons, to hide it from discovery by the enemy.

Braddocks Road is essentially followed by U.S. 40 from Frederick, Maryland, through Hagarstown, Maryland, Cumberland, Maryland, to Grantsville, Maryland, and into Pennsylvania, past Fort Necessity National Battlefield, to Uniontown, Pennsylvania. There Braddock's Road went north toward Pittsburgh, the route now followed by U.S. 51.

It is interesting that cousin Roy Engle cites oral history as recording that an 8 year old Clemens s/o Johann Peter Sr, was driving a wagon for Braddock's invasion of the West. Could it be he was a helper on his Father's wagon? It is well documented that a massive wagon relief effort was mounted by wagon trains from Lancaster County during the War. The autobiography of Ben Franklin describes how he organized the procurement of wagons and drivers from York and Lancaster for use by Braddock in his expedition.

He offered to pay 15 Schillings per day for a wagon, four horses, and a driver starting May 20 1755 from Fort Cumberland. It is easy to imagine how attractive an offer it would be to the Peter Sr and Johann Peter Sr families newly arrived with no jobs or land ownership. They may have borrowed or purchased wagons from the local farmers and maybe Clemens was a big eight year old able to handle a team by himself. By 1756, Peter Sr. was located in Frederick MD so it is possible he used his iron working skills in logistical support for the ill fated expedition.

During the French and Indian war (1754-1763), the colonial aspects of the Seven Years War between Britain and France was continuing. With the defeat and death of General Braddock, the frontier flamed with Indian atrocities. His objective, the capture of Fort Duquesne, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was still important.
In 1758, a second expedition was formed under Brigadier John Forbes, again with Colonel George Washington in assistance. The Army left Philadelphia on the Old Wagon Road going west. The Road went through Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and York, Pennsylvania, to the frontier settlements of Gettysburg and Waynesboro. From Gettysburg, Forbes Road went outward along Pennsylvania 116 to near Fountain Dale where it is taken up by Pennsylvania 16 to Waynesboro, Greencastle, Mercersburg to Cove Gap and McConnelsburg. The next destination was Coves Gap south of now Fort Loudon, where they crossed through the ridge into the great valleys and ridges of central Pennsylvania. From McConnelsburg they had to widen the settler traces and Indian trails across Sideling Hill to Fort Bedford, in order to bring their wagons and cannon. For its full length, Forbes Road follows the route of U.S. 30.

From Fort Bedford the army had to cut their own road. In true military method, they refused to allow any higher grounds above them, going always to the highest ground around. They followed the south heights of the stream going out of Bedford to the southwest, then turn sharply northward, passing directly through the now Shawnee State Park and crossing U.S. 30. Staying on the heights to the north of U.S. 30, they crossed the Allegheny Front, taking one full day to climb the mountain. Coming down into Somerset County, they trod the road now in front of the Brethren Camp Harmony, passed the south edge of Quemahoning Reservoir, and at the town of Boswell turned north to Laural Mountain. They came down on the ridge just south of Waterford Pennsylvania and hit Pennsylvania 711 just north of Ligonier Pennsylvania, marching into the town area along that roadway. Here they built a major fort (rebuilt partially on the site). The outer works included the diamond downtown, about 4 blocks away (about 2 blocks wide) from the inner works on the banks above Loyalhanna Creek. The fort was log walled, with an abattis of pointed logs angling outward at the base. (This forced the engineering corps to attempt to chop an opening through the abattis, while being fired down upon by the soldiers on the wall above.) The French and Indian Army met British Army, coming from the Cemetery Hill and across the meadow to Loyalhanna Creek at the fort, the British this time won the victory.

Clearly more research of this period is needed as the first record of Johann Peter Sr and wife Susanna in America is in the Frederick Town Reformed Church records where a son Samuel was born 20 Apr 1762. Their son Michael was baptized in June 1760 in York county. Those are the only two records of Johann Peter Sr and wife in this period.

1763 A Peter Engul took the oath of naturalization on 15 April 1763 in Annapolis. During this time many Germans in Frederick took the oath in different cities besides Frederick as far away as Philadelphia. Since Peter Sr had taken the oath on arrival at Philadelphia could this be Peter Jr who turned 14 the previous September. Parliament recently passed a law that said they could not own land without the oath. Note that our Peter Engels Sr first purchased land the following year from Daniel Dulaney of Annapolis. One is left to wonder who John Engul the witness was? Johannes or Johann Peter Sr? Who was Peter Engul?

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